Citrus aurantium canaliculata

Bitter Orange

Scientific Name(s):Citrus aurantium L. Family: Rutaceae

Common Name(s): Bitter orangebitter orange flower citrus aurantium canaliculata, bitter orange peelgreen orangekijitsuneroli oilSeville orangeshangzhou zhiqiaosour orangebigaradeneroli flowerslaranja-amargacitrus aurantium canaliculatalaranja-cavalozhi shizhi qiao 1234


Pharmacological actions for C.

aurantium include the following: antispasmodic, sedative, tranquilizer, cholagogue, demulcent, eupeptic, tonic, and vascular stimulant; as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal agent; and for reducing cholesterol; however, clinical data is limited.

Most medical literature focuses on the safety and efficacy of its use in over-the-counter weight-loss supplement formulations. Studies examining this use have used small sample sizes and often focus on combination products.


Follow manufacturer's dosage guidelines citrus aurantium canaliculata synephrine content may vary in supplement formulation. There is evidence of effective weight loss at a synephrine dose of 32 mg/day in treating obesity.


Because of the potential for citrus aurantium canaliculata effects, synephrine use is best avoided in patients with hypertension, tachyarrhythmia, or narrow angle glaucoma.


Avoid use due to citrus aurantium canaliculata of citrus aurantium canaliculata data regarding safety and efficacy during pregnancy and lactation.


Bitter orange may inhibit intestinal CYP3A4 and intestinal efflux and may interact with numerous drugs, including anxiolytics, antidepressants, antiviral agents, calcium channel blockers, dextromethorphan, GI prokinetic agents, vasoconstrictors, and weight-loss formulas.

Adverse Reactions

There are numerous case reports of adverse cardiac reactions associated with C.

aurantium extract use.


Medical literature primarily documents cardiovascular toxicity, especially due to the stimulant amines synephrine, octopamine, and N-methyltyramine, which may cause vasoconstriction as well as increased heart rate and blood pressure.


In addition to C. aurantiumbitter orange may also be listed as C.

aurantium amaraCitrus bergamiaCitrus bigaradiaCitrus vulgarisor Aurantii pericarpium. Bitter orange probably originated from southeast Asia. During the 10th and 11th centuries, traders introduced the citrus aurantium canaliculata to several Mediterranean regions and it was widely cultivated. It is grown commercially in southern Citrus aurantium canaliculata, particularly in Spain and Portugal, as well as in Israel and various islands of the Caribbean.

This evergreen tree grows up to 10 m in height and has long, leathery, dark green leaves and scented white flowers with 5 to 8 citrus aurantium canaliculata. The membranes and pulp of the orange fruit are bitter and sour. The tree is very resistant to plant diseases when compared with other citrus trees. 12567


The Spanish and Portuguese brought bitter oranges to the Americas in the 1500s.

In Chinese folk medicine, bitter orange was used as a tonic and carminative to treat dyspepsia. Dried bitter orange was used to treat ptosis of the uterus and anus, to relieve abdominal distention and diarrhea, and for blood in feces. 18

In Europe, bitter orange flowers and oil have been used as a sedative and as a prophylactic for GI complaints, nervous conditions, gout, sore throat, and insomnia.

The plant has been used to treat toxic and anaphylactic shock, heart conditions, cardiac exhaustion, and cancer. 13 In Brazilian folk medicine it was used as an anticonvulsant and to treat anxiety and citrus aurantium canaliculata. 9

Bitter orange oil is used extensively to flavor many food products, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings, meat and meat products, and condiments and relishes.


Its purported uses in the United States include prevention of skin, breast, and colon cancer. In Haiti the plant has been used as an antiseptic and purgative and in Turkey it has been used as a narcotic, sedative, and treatment for scurvy. The plant has been used as a remedy for treatment-resistant fungal skin diseases, and the tincture or extract has been used for treating heartburn. 10

Powdered extracts of the dried immature fruit or peel are used as an alternative to ephedra in many dietary supplements and herbal weight-loss products.

10 On April 11, 2004, the Food and Drug Administration banned the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids because of the safety concerns.

Many citrus aurantium canaliculata of weight-loss supplement formulations now offer ephedra-free products containing bitter orange extract. Because bitter orange extract contains citrus aurantium canaliculata sympathomimetic, the safety and efficacy of these formulations is monitored closely. 8


A number of phytochemicals of medicinal interest have been found throughout the plant, including the leaf, flower, fruit, seeds, and peel.



The essential or volatile oil (0.2% to 0.4%) contains citrus aurantium canaliculata than 90% monoterpene hydrocarbons, alcohols, flavonoid-glycosides, aldehydes, ketone-free acids, esters, coumarins, and tetranotriterpenoids (limonin).



The essential or volatile oil (0.05% to 0.5%) contains monoterpene hydrocarbons, alcohols, and flavonoid-glycosides similar to those contained in the leaf.

The following constituents are also found in the flowers: synephrine, 5,8-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3 β-ol, adenosine, asparagine, tyrosine, valine, isoleucine, alanine, β-sitosterol, and β-daucosterol.



The fruit contains octopamine, synephrine, and tyramine. Synephrine is the main chemical constituent in the fruit (0.1% to 0.35%). The fruit primarily contains the glycosylated flavanones naringin and neohesperidin. 1617


17-β-D-glucopyranosides have been isolated from the seeds. 1819


The essential citrus aurantium canaliculata volatile oil (2%) contains monoterpene hydrocarbons (90% limonene), bitter and nonbitter flavonoids, furanocoumarins, flavonoid-glycosides, mineral salts, pectin, organic acids, vitamins (A, B 1C), and carotenoid pigments.


Additional coumarin glycosides have also been isolated from C. aurantium. 2122

Numerous weight-loss products contain adrenergic amines structurally similar to ephedrine alkaloids, including synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, N-methyltyramine, and hordenine. 23 Some citrus aurantium canaliculata documents the importance of distinguishing the alkaloid constituents in bitter orange because of the potential alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic activity, particularly para-synephrine versus meta-synephrine.


There are 6 possible isomers of synephrine, with disagreement as to whether bitter orange contains para-synephrine, meta-synephrine, or both. 24 The distinction is important because of the pharmacological properties that may affect safety and efficacy of commercial products.

Para-synephrine occurs naturally in the human body, is an alpha-adrenergic agonist, and has some beta-adrenergic properties. Meta-synephrine (often referred to as phenylephrine), an isomer of para-synephrine, is also citrus aurantium canaliculata alpha-adrenergic agonist and has some beta-adrenergic agonist properties.


Uses and Pharmacology

There citrus aurantium canaliculata numerous pharmacological actions recognized for C. aurantium. The leaf and flower have been studied for anticancer activity and as an antispasmodic, sedative, and tranquilizer. The peel has been studied as a cholagogue, demulcent, citrus aurantium canaliculata, tonic, and vascular stimulant, as well as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal agent, and for reducing cholesterol.


The most current literature focuses on the plant's safety and efficacy in over-the-counter weight-loss supplement formulations. Patients should be aware when taking over-the-counter formulations that synephrine content may vary and that manufacturer dosage guidelines should be followed.

Weight loss

Synephrine alkaloids increase energy expenditure and decrease food intake through activation of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors.

Synephrine citrus aurantium canaliculata may also decrease food intake by reducing gastric motility. 11 citrus aurantium canaliculata, 2324252627

Animal data

Several studies have demonstrated that synephrine alkaloids reduce food intake and white fat cells in rats, hamsters, and dogs.

Synephrine also promotes lipolysis in adipocytes through beta-adrenergic citrus aurantium canaliculata. 1023

Clinical data

In a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, 23 subjects with body-mass indices more than 25 kg/m 2 were assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Group A received a mixture containing C. aurantium 975 mg citrus aurantium canaliculata synephrine alkaloid), St.

John's wort 900 mg (3% hypericin), and caffeine 528 mg; group B received a maltodextrin placebo; and group C was a control without placebo. All patients completed a 3 day/week exercise program citrus aurantium canaliculata received American Heart Association's dietary citrus aurantium canaliculata. Outcomes were measured at baseline as well as at 3 and 6 weeks and included changes in weight, percent body fat, fat mass, and basal metabolism. Patients in group A lost an average of 1.4 kg ( P < 0.05); group B lost an average citrus aurantium canaliculata 0.9 kg ( P < 0.1); group C lost an average of 0.4 kg.

No changes were noted in cardiovascular activity (ie, changes citrus aurantium canaliculata laboratory tests, blood pressure, heart rate, or electrocardiograms). Reviewers of this study note that although the authors performed a statistical analysis of within-group changes in weight, they did not perform the same comparison among groups. No evidence was presented on changes in cardiovascular activity or adverse reactions. 72728 Another trial involving 15 subjects examined the cardiovascular effects of a single dose of a commercially available product containing citrus aurantium canaliculata orange, standardized to 6% synephrine.

Outcome measures included changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate measured at baseline and every hour for 6 hours after oral administration. Changes or increases were found in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate for up to 5 hours citrus aurantium canaliculata administration of a single dose of synephrine.


Changes in blood pressure and pulse were examined in 12 subjects in a randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled, crossover design citrus aurantium canaliculata. Patients consumed either C. aurantium citrus aurantium canaliculata (contains synephrine 13 to 14 mg) or a water placebo. Blood pressure and pulse were measured hourly for 5 hours in patients who consumed the juice. It was citrus aurantium canaliculata that C. aurantium juice had no effects on blood pressure or pulse.

30 Another clinical trial of 18 subjects documented no changes in the QT interval or blood pressure after a single oral dose of meta- or para-synephrine 27 mg.

citrus aurantium canaliculata


Changes in cardiovascular activity (ie, systolic and diastolic pressure, heart rate) were examined in 10 subjects in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Two commercial supplements were tested in patients, with a 1-week washout period between treatments: (1) C. aurantium alone (synephrine 45 mg); or (2) a multicomponent supplement containing synephrine 5.5 mg. Patients using the multicomponent drug supplement experienced clinical and statistical changes in cardiovascular activity.

However, because an 8-fold higher dose of synephrine had no effect on blood pressure, it was concluded that the pressor effects were not caused by C. aurantium but were caused by other stimulants in the supplement. 32 The same research team also documented similar cardiovascular stimulant activity in another study citrus aurantium canaliculata 10 healthy, normotensive adults. 33 A study examining the physiological effects of a multicomponent drug supplement containing synephrine 6 mg found no changes in 10 sedentary men with more than 20% body fat when evaluated at rest and during treadmill walking.


Other pharmacologic activity

In mice, anxiolytic and sedative effects of 0.5 to 1 g/kg extract of bitter orange were compared with chlordiazepoxide 10 mg/kg, citrus aurantium canaliculata acid 400 mg/kg, or diazepam 1.2 mg/kg. Mice were treated orally with 1 g/kg of the extract. After 30 minutes, each animal was injected with sodium pentobarbital 40 mg/kg. Sedative effects were measured in seconds by induction time (time from injection to loss of rightness reflex) and duration citrus aurantium canaliculata sleep (time from loss of rightness reflex to awakening).

The extract significantly increased the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital ( P < 0.05). Several tests were used to examine the anxiolytic effect of the citrus aurantium canaliculata however, the extract used in the elevated plus maze test produced an anxiolytic effect ( P < 0.05). 4


In mice, para-synephrine may have antidepressant activity, citrus aurantium canaliculata documented by immobility tests.

35 The antidepressant effects may be greater with the S isomer of para-synephrine. 36


Synephrine content of bitter orange products varies widely. Review manufacturers' dosage guidelines because of the numerous commercially available synephrine products.

There is evidence for effective weight loss at a synephrine dose of 32 mg/day synephrine in treating obesity.



Avoid use due to lack of clinical data regarding safety and efficacy during pregnancy and lactation. 10


C. aurantium inhibits intestinal CYP3A4 and intestinal efflux (P-glycoprotein) in citrus aurantium canaliculata small intestine and may interact with numerous drugs.

Anxiolytics and antidepressants

Theoretically, bitter orange may increase the adverse reactions of these medications.


In an open-label, crossover study in 13 healthy volunteers, subjects received indinavir 800 mg every 8 hours for 1 day and as a single 800 mg dose the next morning with 240 mL of water or Seville orange juice.

37 Compared with water, taking indinavir with Seville orange juice prolonged the time to reach the indinavir peak plasma concentration 50% (from 1.25 to 1.87 hours).

This change is not likely to be clinically important.

Calcium channel blockers

In a randomized, crossover study involving 10 healthy volunteers, taking a felodipine extended-release 10 mg tablet with 240 mL of Seville orange juice increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and peak plasma concentration of felodipine 76% and 61%, respectively, compared with taking felodipine with water.



In a study of 11 healthy volunteers, citrus aurantium canaliculata with water, taking dextromethorphan 30 mg with 200 mL of Seville orange juice increased the bioavailability of citrus aurantium canaliculata from 0.1 to 0.46. 39

GI prokinetic agents, vasoconstrictors, citrus aurantium canaliculata weight-loss formulas

Theoretically, bitter orange may increase the adverse reactions of these medications.

Adverse Reactions

There are numerous case reports of adverse reactions associated with bitter orange.

Cardiovascular system

A 38-year-old man suffered an ischemic stroke after taking a dietary supplement containing synephrine daily for 1 week.

The patient had no medical history or atherosclerotic citrus aurantium canaliculata factors and took no medications.

Other possible causes of ischemic stroke citrus aurantium canaliculata to be unremarkable. 40

A 52-year old woman developed unremitting tachycardia after consuming a daily dose of C. aurantium extract 500 mg (synephrine 30 mg/day).

She had been taking thyroxine 50 mcg/day citrus aurantium canaliculata hypothyroidism for about 10 years. 41

Another case report documents a 55-year-old woman with an acute-lateral-wall myocardial infarction. The patient was taking a dietary supplement containing C. aurantium 300 mg for weight loss for 1 year. She had numerous risk factors for myocardial infarction. 4

A 28-year-old man suffered a massive myocardial infarction after abusing synephrine tablets (dose not provided).

An overdose of synthetic synephrine in children caused nausea, vomiting, irritation, tachycardia, and a rapid increase in blood pressure. 10

There is also a case report on variant angina with bitter orange.


Muscular system

A 22-year-old man developed rhabdomyolysis after consuming a synephrine-containing weight-loss formula. While exercising, the patient developed fatigue, dehydration, and myalgias.



Animal studies document the following potential cardiac toxicity: N-methyltyramine increased renal and cerebral resistance in dogs; synephrine induced dose-dependent portal hypotensive effects and ventricular arrhythmias with enlargement of QRS complex in rats.

5 citrus aurantium canaliculata, 25444546

C. aurantium contains the stimulant amines synephrine, octopamine, and N-methyltyramine.

47 These amines may cause vasoconstriction as well as increased heart rate and blood pressure. Sympathomimetics also cause resistant hypertension. 48

Because of the potential for additive effects, synephrine use should be avoided in patients with hypertension, tachyarrhythmia, or narrow-angle glaucoma.

Ephedrine and synephrine are banned by many sports agencies.

A single dose of a commercially available synephrine product did not cause a false-positive response in an amphetamine assay. 49


1. Leung AFoster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics.

New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; 1996 : 393-397 .
2. Bissett NG. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 1994 : 91-92 .
3. Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs2nd ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 1999 : 1291-1330 .
4. Orange. In: The Encyclopedia Americana International Edition.

Danbury, CT: Grolier Incorporated; 1989 : 9-11 .
5. Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: DK Publishing; 1996 : 188-189 .
6. Bent SPadula ANeuhaus J. Safety and efficacy of Citrus aurantium for weight loss. Am J Cardiol.

2004 ; 94 ( 10 ): 1359-1361 .
7. Blumenthal M. Bitter orange peel and synephrine citrus aurantium canaliculata. HerbalGram. 2005 ; 66. Accessed November 9, 2007.
8. Nykamp DFackih MCompton A. Possible association of acute lateral-wall myocardial infarction and bitter orange supplement. Ann Pharmacother. 2004 ; 38 ( 5 ): 812-816 .
9. Carvalho-Freitas MCosta M.

Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 ; 25 ( 12 ): 1629-1633 .
10. National Toxicology Program.

Bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium var. amara) extracts and constituents (+/−) p-synephrine [CAS No. 94-07-5] and (+/−) citrus aurantium canaliculata [CAS No. 104-14-3]. Review of the Toxicological Literature. 2004 : 1-73 .
11. Slezak TFrancis PSAnastos NBarnett NW. Determination of synephrine in weight-loss products using high performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

Anal Chim Acta citrus aurantium canaliculata. 2007 ; 593 ( 1 ): 98-102 .
12. Arias BARamón-Laca L. Pharmacological properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in the Mediterranean region. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 ; 97 ( 1 ): 89-95 .
13. Del Rio JABenavente OCastillo JBorrego F. Neodiosmin, a flavone glycoside of Citrus aurantium.

Phytochemistry. 1992 ; 31 : 723-724 .
14. Carnat ACarnat APFraisse DLamaison JL. Standardization of the sour orange flower and leaf [in French]. Ann Pharm Fr. 1999 ; 57 ( 5 ): 410-414 .

Huang SHu SShi JYang Y. Studies on chemical constituents from the flower of Citrus aurantium [in Chinese]. Zhong Yao Cai.

2001 ; 24 ( 12 ): 865-867 .
16. Pellati FBenvenuti SMelegari M. High-performance liquid chromatography methods for the analysis citrus aurantium canaliculata adrenergic amines and flavanones in Citrus aurantium L.

var. amara. Phytochem Anal. 2004 ; 15 ( 4 citrus aurantium canaliculata 220-225 .
17. Synephrine. In: Buckingham J, exec ed. Dictionary of Natural Products, Vol 5: R-Z. New York: Chapman and Hall; citrus aurantium canaliculata : 5307-5308 .

Bennett RDMiyake MOzaki YHasegawa S. Limonoid glucosides in Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry. 1991 ; 30 : 3803-3805 .
19. Bennett RDHasegawa S. Isolimonic acid, a new citrus limonoid.

Phytochemistry. 1980 ; 19 : 2417-2419 .
20. Sarin PSSeshadri TR. New components of Citrus aurantium. Tetrahedron. 1960 ; 8 : 64-66 .
21. McHale DKhopkar PPSheridan JB. Coumarin glycosides from Citrus flavedo. Citrus aurantium canaliculata. 1987 ; 26 : 2547-2549 .
22. Fugh-Berman AMyers A. Citrus aurantiuman ingredient of dietary supplements marketed for weight loss: current status of clinical citrus aurantium canaliculata basic research. Exp Biol Med. 2004 ; 229 : 698-704 .

Haaz SFontaine KRCutter Citrus aurantium canaliculataLimdi NPerumean-Chaney SAllison DB. Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: an update.

Obesity Citrus aurantium canaliculata. 2006 ; 7 ( 1 ): 79-88.
24. Allison DBCutter GPoehlman ETMoore DRBarnes S. Exactly which synephrine alkaloids does Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) contain? Int J Obes. 2005 ; 29 ( 4 ): 443-446 .
25. Calapai GFirenzuoli FSaitta Aet al. Antiobesity and cardiovascular toxic effects of Citrus aurantium extracts in the rat: a preliminary report. Fitoterapia.

1999 ; 70 : 586-592 .
26. Moro COBasile G. Obesity and medicinal plants. Fitoterapia. 2000 citrus aurantium canaliculata 71 ( suppl 1 ):S73-S82.
27. Preuss HGDiFerdinando DBagchi MBagchi D. Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight-reduction replacement for ephedra: an overview. J Med. 2002 ; 33 ( 1-4 ): 247-264 .
28. Colker CMKaiman DSTorina GCPerlis TStreet C. Effects of Citrus aurantium extract, caffeine, and Citrus aurantium canaliculata. John's Wort on body fat loss, citrus aurantium canaliculata levels, and mood states in overweight healthy adults.

Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1999 ; 60 : 145-153 .
29. Bui LTNguyen DTAmbrose PJ. Blood pressure and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orange. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 ; 40 ( 1 ): 53-57 .
30. Penzak SRJann MWCold JA citrus aurantium canaliculata, Hon YYDesai HDGurley BJ citrus aurantium canaliculata.

Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 ; 41 ( 10 ): 1059-1063 .
31. Min BCios DKluger JWhite CM. Absence of QTc-interval-prolonging or hemodynamic effects of a single dose of bitter-orange extract in healthy subjects. Pharmacotherapy. 2005 ; 25 ( 12 ): 1719-1724 .
32. Haller CDuan MJacob P IIIBenowitz N. Synephrine pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular changes after ingestion of Citrus aurantium dietary supplements.

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 ; 77 : P5 .
33. Haller CABenowitz NLJacob P. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans. Am J Med. 2005 ; 118 ( 9 ): 998-1003 .

Sale CHDelves RCCorbett SJ. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males.

Int J Obes. 2006 ; 30 ( 5 ): 764-773 .
35. Song DKSuh HWJung JSWie MBSon KHKim YH. Antidepressant-like effects of p-synephrine in mouse models of immobility tests. Neurosci Lett. 1996 ; 214 ( 2-3 ): 107-110 .
36. Kim KWKim HDJung JSet al. Characterization of antidepressant-like effects of p-synephrine stereoisomers.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2001 ; 364 ( 1 ): 21-26 .
37. Penzak SRAcosta EPTurner Met al. Effect of Seville orange juice and grapefruit juice on indinavir pharmacokinetics.

J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 ; 42 ( 10 ): 1165-1170 .
38. Malhotra SBailey DGPaine MFWatkins PB. Seville orange juice-felodipine interaction: comparison with dilute grapefruit juice and involvement of furocoumarins.

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001 ; 69 ( 1 ): 14-23 .
39. Di Marco MPEdwards DJWainer IWDucharme MP. The effect of grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethrophan: the role of gut CYP3A and P-glycoprotein.

Life Sci. 2002 ; 71 citrus aurantium canaliculata 10 ): 1149-1160 .

citrus aurantium canaliculata

Bouchard NCHowland MAGreller HAHoffman RSCitrus aurantium canaliculata LS. Ischemic stroke associated with citrus aurantium canaliculata of an ephedra-free dietary supplement containing synephrine.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2005 ; 80 ( 4 ): 541-545 .
41. Firenzuoli F citrus aurantium canaliculata, Gori LGalapai C. Adverse reaction to an adrenergic herbal extract ( Citrus aurantium ).

Phytomedicine. 2005 ; 12 ( 3 ): 247-248 .
42. Gange CAMadias CWeintraub EM citrus aurantium canaliculata, Estes ARMark NA. Variant angina associated with bitter orange in a dietary supplement. Mayo Clinic Proc. 2006 ; 81 ( 4 ): 545-548 .
43. Burke JSeda GAllen DKnee TS. A case of severe exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis associated with a weight-loss dietary supplement. Mil Med. 2007 ; 172 ( 6 ): 656-658 .
44. Kubo KKiyose COgino SSaito M. Suppressive effect of Citrus aurantium against body fat accumulation and its safety.

J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2005 ; 36 ( 1 ): 11-17 .
45. Chen XLiu LYDeng HWFang YXYe YW. The effects of Citrus aurantium and its active ingredient N-methyltyramine on the cardiovascular receptors. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1981 ; 16 ( 4 ): 253-259 .
46. Huang YTLin HCChang YYYang YYLee SDHong CY. Hemodynamic effects of synephrine treatment in portal hypertensive rats.

Citrus aurantium canaliculata J Pharmacol. 2001 ; 85 ( 2 citrus aurantium canaliculata 183-188 .
47. Klontz KCTimbo BBStreet D. Consumption of dietary supplements containing Citrus aurantium (bitter orange)—2004 California Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS). Ann Pharmacother. 2006 ; 40 ( 10 ): 1747-1751 .

Chobanian AVBakris GLBlack HRet al; Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. National HEart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program coordination Committee. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003 ; 42 ( 6 ): 1206-1252 .
49. Nguyen DTBui LTAmbrose PJ. Response of CEDIA amphetamines assay after a citrus aurantium canaliculata dose of bitter orange.

Ther Drug Monit. 2006 ; 28 ( 2 ): 252-254 .

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer

Next → Breastfeeding Warnings